On Getting Paid
“Globally, women spend an average of 4.5 hours a day on unpaid work,” Gates writes. “Men spend less than half that much time.”
1642.5 hours of unpaid work per year
Women negotiate for promotions and raises as often as men but face more pushback when they do. Women also receive informal feedback less frequently than men — despite asking for it as often — and have less access to senior-level sponsors.
The industry with the largest uncontrolled gender pay gap is Finance and Insurance, in which the typical woman’s salary is roughly 29 percent less than that of the typical man’s salary. The smallest uncontrolled gender pay gap is observed in the Business and Support Services industry, where women make about 7 percent less than men.
The largest controlled pay gap is found in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction industry, a historically male-dominated industry where women make about 7 percent less than men for doing the same job. The smallest controlled gap is in the Educational Services industry, where women earn about half-a-percent less than men on average.
It’s worth noting that as women move more into historically male-dominated industries, the median salary tends to decrease, as reported by The New York Times. Conversely, as men move into traditionally female-dominated industries, the trend reverses, and the median salary tends to increase.
On Cost of Living
In every industry, products for female consumers were more likely to cost more.
· Girls’ toys cost more 55 percent of the time, while boys’ toys cost more 8 percent of the time.
· Girls’ clothing cost more 26 percent of the time, while boys’ clothing cost more 7 percent of the time.
· Women’s clothing cost more 40 percent of the time, while men’s clothing cost more 32 percent of the time.
· Women’s personal care products cost more 56 percent of the time, while men’s products cost more 13 percent of the time.
· Senior home health care products cost more for women 45 percent of the time and cost more for men 13 percent of the time.
Then add the hard costs and the corresponding taxes with items women purchase: birth control, tampons, baby formula, and diapers.
Before ACA women paid as much as 81% more for health insurance even though over a lifetime they cost less. The argument for gender rating, in the days before the Affordable Care Act, had always been that women cost more to insure. But if we ignore all costs directly associated with pregnancy and childbearing (the logic here being that it takes two parties to create a child and both parties should be willing to pay equally to support that endeavor), men aren’t cheaper to insure than women.
“When you get older, men cost more to insure than women,” explained Jonathan Gruber, a health economist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Later in life, men are more likely to have a variety of conditions including heart attacks, lung cancer, and liver cancer. They’re also more likely to smoke, drink, and get in accidents, according to experts.
On Role Models and Opportunities in Media
Role model disparity cuts across books and movies.
· Males are central characters in 57 percent of children’s books published per year, while only 31 percent have female central characters.
· No more than 33 percent of children’s books published in any given year contain central characters that are adult women or female animals, but adult men and male animals appear in up to 100 percent of books.
· Male animals are central characters in more than 23 percent of books per year, while female animals are in only 7.5 percent.
· On average, 36.5 percent of books in each year studied include a male in the title, compared to 17.5 percent that include a female.
· Although books published in the 1990s came close to parity for human characters, a significant disparity of nearly 2 to 1 remains for male animal characters versus female.
In 2014 80% of films had no women credited as writers, and women overall had fewer lines.